A new Study has revealed that the early exposure to two chemicals often found in food packaging and fungicides may cause damage to children’s teeth that can never be reversed.
Lead study author Dr. Katia Jedeon, of the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), and colleagues found exposure to the chemicals bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin may interfere with hormones responsible for the growth of dental enamel.
MIH is a developmental condition in which enamel defects occur in the first permanent teeth, most commonly the molars and incisors. Such a defect is irreversible; once tooth enamel is damaged, it cannot grow back.
Children with MIH can experience heightened tooth sensitivity, particularly to cold foods and drinks, and they are at greater risk for dental caries. Their teeth may be creamy, yellow, or brown in appearance, and they may chip away easily.
For their study, Dr. Jedeon and colleagues conducted two experiments to gain a better understanding of how exposure to EDs might be associated with MIH.
On analyzing the cells, they found that exposure to BPA and vinclozolin altered the expression of two genes – KLK4 and SLC5A8 – that regulate tooth enamel mineralization.
Next, the researchers cultured ameloblast cells of rats, which are cells that deposit enamel during tooth development. They found that these cells contain sex hormones – including estrogen and testosterone – that increase the expression of genes that produce tooth enamel.
Interestingly, they found that testosterone increases the expression of the KLK4 and SLC5A8 genes.
Because both BPA and vinclozolin are known to inhibit the effect of male sex hormones, the authors say their findings indicate that the chemicals may lead to MIH by blocking hormones needed for development of tooth enamel. Courtesy “Daily Times”